The final model that served as a basis for this investigation was the 3P (Presage, Process and Product) model of teaching and learning proposed by Biggs et al. (2001) (Figure 8)
Figure 8. 3P Model of Teaching and Learning.
In discussing the idea of a student’s approach to learning, Biggs et al. use the 3P model to describe the factors which influence whether a student will take a deep or a surface approach to learning. The model shows how student factors interact with the teaching context during the learning activities and lead to the attainment, or non-attainment, of the learning outcomes. They argue that the instructor is responsible for the design and structure of the learning environment and that the student is responsible for engaging appropriately with the activities.
In the context of the study buddy activity, the structure provided for students appeared to encourage the kind of cognitive skills required for critical thinking. Biggs et al. call this correspondence “constructive alignment” and contend that if students are consistently expected to take a deep approach to their learning and exhibit evidence of critical thinking, then the assessments in the course should be structured to align with that stated goal.